HOMILY II: “The earth was invisible and unfinished.”

1. IN the few words which have occupied us this morning we have found
such a depth of thought that we despair of penetrating further. If such is
the fore court of the sanctuary, if the portico of the temple is so grand
and magnificent, if the splendour of its beauty thus dazzles the eyes of
the soul, what will be the holy of holies? Who will dare to try to gain
access to the innermost shrine? Who will look into its secrets? To gaze
into it is indeed forbidden us, and language. is powerless to express what
the mind conceives. However, since there are rewards, and most desirable
ones, reserved by the just Judge for the intention alone of doing good, do
not let us hesitate to continue our researches. Although we may not attain
to the truth, if, with the help of the Spirit, we do not fall away from the
meaning of Holy Scripture we shall not deserve to be rejected, and, with
the help of grace, we shall contribute to the edification of the Church of
God.

“The earth,” says Holy Scripture, “was  invisible and unfinished.” The
heavens and the earth were created without distinction. How then is it that
the heavens are perfect whilst the earth is still unformed and incomplete?
In one word, what was the unfinished condition of the earth? And for what
reason was it invisible? The fertility of the earth is its perfect
finishing; growth of all kinds of plants, the upspringing of tall trees,
both productive and sterile, flowers’ sweet scents and fair colours, and
all that which, a little later, at the voice of God came forth from the
earth to beautify her, their universal Mother. As nothing of all this yet
existed, Scripture is right in calling the earth “without form.” We could
also say of the heavens that they were still imperfect and had not received
their natural adornment, since at that time they did not shine with the
glory of the sun and of the moon and were not crowned by the choirs of the
stars.(1) These bodies were not yet created. Thus you will not diverge from
the truth in saying that the heavens also were “without form.” The earth
was invisible for two reasons: it may be because man, the spectator, did
not yet exist, or because being submerged under the waters which over-
flowed the surface, it could not be seen, since the waters had not yet been
gathered together into their own places, where God afterwards collected
them, and gave them the name of seas. What is invisible? First of all that
which our fleshly eye cannot perceive; our mind, for example; then that
which, visible in its nature, is hidden by some body which conceals it,
like iron in the depths of the earth. It is in this sense, because it was
hidden under the waters, that the earth was still invisible. However, as
light did not yet exist, and as the earth lay in darkness, because of the
obscurity of the air above it, it should not astonish us that for this
reason Scripture calls it” invisible.”

2. But the corrupters of the truth, who,  incapable of submitting their
reason to Holy  Scripture, distort at will the meaning of  the Holy
Scriptures, pretend that these  words mean matter. For it is matter, they
say, which from its nature is without form  and invisible,–being by the
conditions of  its existence without quality and without form and
figure.(1) The Artificer submitting it to the working of His wisdom clothed
it with a form, organized it, and thus gave being to the visible world.

If matter is uncreated, it has a claim to the same honours as God,
since it must be of equal rank with Him. Is this not the summit of
wickedness, that an extreme deformity, without quality, without form,
shape, ugliness without configuration, to use their  own expression, should
enjoy the same prerogatives with Him, Who is wisdom. power and beauty
itself, the Creator and the Demiurge of the universe? This is not all. If
matter is so great as to be capable of being acted on by the whole wisdom
of God, it would in a way raise its hypostasis to an equality with the
inaccessible power of God, since it would be able to measure by itself all
the extent of the divine intelligence. If it is insufficient for the
operations of God, then we fall into a more absurd blasphemy, since we
condemn God for not being able, on account of the want of matter, to finish
His own works. The poverty of human nature has deceived these reasoners.
Each of our crafts Is exercised upon some special matter–the art of the
smith upon iron, that of the carpenter on wood. In all, there is the
subject, the form and the work which results from the form. Matter is taken
from without–art gives the form–and the work is composed at the same time
of form and of matter.(2)

Such is the idea that they make for themselves of the divine work. The
form of the world is due to the wisdom of the supreme Artificer; matter
came to the Creator from without; and thus the world results from a double
origin. It hits received from outside its matter and its essence, and from
God its form and figure.(3) They thus come to deny that the mighty God has
presided at the formation of the universe, and pretend that  He has only
brought a crowning contribution to a common work, that He has only
contributed some small portion to the genesis of beings: they are incapable
from the debasement of their reasonings of raising their glances to the
height of truth. Here below arts are subsequent to matter–introduced into
life by the indispensable need of them. Wool existed before weaving made it
supply one of nature’s imperfections. Wood existed before carpentering took
possession of it, and transformed it each day to supply new wants, and made
us see all the advantages derived from it, giving the oar to the sailor,
the winnowing fan to the labourer, the lance to the soldier. But God,
before all those things which now attract our notice existed, after casting
about in His mind and determining to bring into being time which had no
being, imagined the world such as it ought to be, and created matter in
harmony with the forth which He wished to give it.(1) He assigned to the
heavens the nature adapted for the heavens, and gave to the earth an
essence in accordance with its form. He formed, as He wished, fire, air and
water, and gave to each the essence which the object of its existence
required. Finally, He welded all the diverse parts of the universe by links
of indissoluble attachment and established between them so perfect a
fellowship and harmony that the most distant, in spite of their distance,
appeared united in one universal sympathy. Let those men therefore renounce
their fabulous imaginations, who, in spite of the weakness of their
argument, pretend to measure a power as incomprehensible to man’s reason as
it is unutterable by man’s voice.

3. God created the heavens and the earth, but not only half;–He
created all the heavens and all the earth, creating the essence with the
form. For He is not an inventor of figures, but the Creator even of the
essence of beings. Further let them tell us how the efficient power of God
could deal with the passive nature of matter, the latter furnishing the
matter without form, the former possessing the science of the form without
matter, both being in need of each other; the Creator in order to display
His art, matter in order to cease to be without form and to receive a form.
2) But let us stop here and return to our subject.

“The earth was invisible and unfinished.” In saying “In the beginning
God created the heavens and the earth,” the sacred writer passed over many
things in silence, water, air, fire and the results from them, which, all
forming in reality the true complement of the world, were, without doubt,
made at the same time as the universe. By this silence, history wishes to
train the activity or our intelligence, giving it a weak point for
starting, to impel it to the discovery of the truth. Thus, we are not told
of the creation of water; but, as we are told that the earth was invisible,
ask yourself what could have covered it, and prevented it from being seen?
Fire could not conceal it. Fire brightens all about it, and spreads light
rather than darkness around. No more was it air that enveloped the earth.
Air by nature is of little density and transparent. It receives all kinds
of visible object, and transmits them to the spectators. Only one
supposition remains; that which floated on the surface of the earth was
water–the fluid essence which had not yet been confined to its own place.
Thus the earth was not only invisible; it was still incomplete. Even today
excessive damp is a hindrance to the productiveness of the earth. The same
cause at the same time prevents it from being seen, and from being
complete, for the proper and natural adornment of the earth is its
completion: corn waving in the valleys–meadows green with grass and rich
with many coloured flowers–fertile glades and hill-tops shaded by forests.
Of all this nothing was yet produced; the earth was in travail with it in
virtue of the power that she had received from the Creator. But she was
waiting for the appointed time and the divine order to bring forth.

4. ,”Darkness was upon the face of the deep.”(1) A new source for
fables and most impious imaginations if one distorts the sense of these
words at the will of one’s fancies. By “darkness” these wicked men do not
understand what is meant in reality–air not illumined, the shadow produced
by the interposition of a body, or finally a place for some reason deprived
of light. For them “darkness” is an evil power, or rather the
personification of evil, having his origin in himself in opposition to, and
in perpetual struggle with, the goodness of God. If God is light, they say,
without any doubt the power which struggles against Him must be darkness,
“Darkness” not owing its existence to a foreign origin, but an evil
existing by itself. “Darkness” is the enemy of souls, the primary cause of
death, the adversary of virtue. The words of the Prophet, they say in their
error, show that it exists and that it does not proceed from God. From this
what perverse and impious dogmas have been imagined! What grievous
wolves,(1) tearing the flock of the Lord, have sprung from these words to
cast themselves upon souls! Is it not from hence that have come forth
Marcions and Valentini,(2) and the detestable heresy of the Manicheans,(3)
which you may without going far wrong call the putrid humour of the
churches.

O man, why wander thus from the truth, and imagine for thyself that
which will cause thy perdition? The word is simple and within the
comprehension of all. “The earth was invisible.” Why? Because the “deep”
was spread over its surface. What is “the deep”? A mass of water of extreme
depth. But we know that we can see many bodies through clear and
transparent water. How then was it that no part of the earth appeared
through the water? Because the air which surrounded it was still without
light and in darkness. The rays of the sun, penetrating the water, often
allow its to see the pebbles which form the bed of the river, but in a dark
night it is impossible for our glance to penetrate under the water. Thus,
these words “the earth was invisible” are explained by those that follow;
“the deep” covered it and itself was in darkness. Thus, the deep is not a
multitude of hostile powers, as has been imagined;(4) nor “darkness” an
evil sovereign force in enmity with good. In reality two rival principles
of equal power, if engaged without ceasing in a war of mutual attacks, will
end in self destruction. But if one should gain the mastery it would
completely annihilate the conquered. Thus, to maintain the balance in the
struggle between good anti evil is to represent them as engaged in a war
without end and in perpetual destruction, where the opponents are at the
same time conquerors and conquered. If good is the stronger, what is there
to prevent evil being completely annihilated? But if that be the case, the
very utterance of which is impious, I ask myself how it is that they
themselves are not filled with horror to think that they have imagined such
abominable blasphemies.

It is equally impious to say that evil has its origin from God;(1)
because the contrary cannot proceed from its contrary. Life dots not
engender death; darkness is not the origin of light; sickness is not the
maker of health.(2) In the changes of conditions there are transitions from
one condition to the contrary; but in genesis each being proceeds from its
like, and not from its contrary. If then evil is neither uncreate nor
created by God, from whence comes its nature? Certainly that evil exists,
no one living in the world will deny. What shall we say then? Evil is not a
living animated essence; it is the condition of the soul opposed to virtue,
developed in the careless on account of their   falling away from good.(3)

5. Do not then go beyond yourself to seek for evil, and imagine that
there is an original nature of wickedness. Each of us, let us acknowledge
it, is the first author of his own vice. Among the ordinary events of life,
some come naturally, like old age  and sickness, others by chance like
unforeseen occurrences, of which the origin is beyond ourselves, often sad,
sometimes fortunate, as for instance the discovery of a treasure when
digging a well, or the meeting of a mad dog when going to the market place.
Others depend upon ourselves, such as ruling one’s passions, or not putting
a bridle on  one’s pleasures, to be master of oar anger, or to raise the
hand against him who irritates us, to tell the truth, or to lie, to have a
sweet and well-regulated disposition, or to be fierce and swollen and
exalted with pride.(1) Here you are the master of your actions. Do not look
for the guiding cause beyond yourself, but recognise that evil, rightly so
called, has no other origin than our voluntary falls. If it were
involuntary, and did not depend upon ourselves, the laws would not have so
much terror for the guilty, and the tribunals would not be so without pity
when they condemn wretches according to the measure of their crimes. But
enough concerning evil rightly so called. Sickness, poverty, obscurity,
death, finally all human afflictions, ought not to be ranked as evils;
since we do not count among the greatest boons things which are their
opposites.(2) Among these afflictions, some are the effect of nature,
others have obviously been for many a source of advantage. Let us then be
silent for the moment about these metaphors and allegories, and, simply
following without vain curiosity the words of Holy Scripture, let us take
from darkness the idea which it gives us.

But reason asks, was darkness created with the world? Is it older than
light? Why in spite of its inferiority has it preceded it? Darkness, we
reply, did not exist in essence; it is a condition produced in the air by
the withdrawal of light. What then is that light which disappeared suddenly
from the world, so that darkness should cover the face of the deep? If
anything had existed before the formation of this sensible and perishable
world, no doubt we conclude it would have been in light. The orders of
angels, the heavenly hosts, all intellectual natures named or unnamed, all
the ministering spirits,(1) did not live in darkness, but enjoyed a
condition fitted for them in light and spiritual joy.(2)

No one will contradict this; least of all he who looks for celestial
light as one of the rewards promised to virtues the light which, as Solomon
says, is always a light to the righteous,(3) the light which made the
Apostle say “Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be
partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light.”(4) Finally, if the
condemned are sent into outer darkness(5) evidently those who are made
worthy of God’s approval, are at rest in heavenly light. When then,
according to the order of God, the heaven appeared, enveloping all that its
circumference included, a vast and unbroken body separating outer things
from those which it enclosed, it necessarily kept the space inside in
darkness for want of communication with the outer light. Three things are,
indeed, needed to form a shadow, light, a body, a dark place. The shadow of
heaven forms the darkness of the world. Understand, I pray you, what I
mean, by a simple example; by raising for yourself at mid-day a tent of
some compact and impenetrable material, and shutting yourself up in it in
sudden darkness. Suppose that original darkness was like this, not
subsisting directly by itself, but resulting from some external coasts. If
it is said that it rested upon the deep, it is because the extremity of air
naturally touches the surface of bodies; and as at that time the water
covered everything, we are obliged to say that darkness was upon the face
of the deep.

6. And the Spirit of God was borne upon the face of the waters.(6) Does
this spirit mean the diffusion of air? The sacred writer wishes to
enumerate to you the elements of the world, to tell you that God created
the heavens, the earth, water, and air and that the last was now diffused
and in motion; or rather, that which is truer and confirmed by the
authority of the ancients, by the Spirit of God, he means the Holy Spirit.
It is, as has been remarked, the special name, the name above all others
that Scripture delights to give to the Holy Spirit. and always by the
spirit of God the Holy Spirit is meant, the Spirit which completes the
divine and blessed Trinity. You will find it better therefore to take it in
this sense. How then did the Spirit of God move upon the waters? The
explanation that I am about to give you is not an original one, but that of
a Syrian,(1) who was as ignorant in the wisdom of this world as he was
versed in the knowledge of the Truth. He said, then, that the Syriac word
was more expressive, and that being more analogous to the Hebrew term it
was a nearer approach to the scriptural sense. This is the meaning of the
word; by “was borne” the Syrians, he says, understand: it cherished(3) the
nature of the waters as one sees a bird cover the eggs with her body and
impart to them vital force from her own warmth. Such is, as nearly as
possible, the meaning of these words–the Spirit was borne: let us
understand, that is, prepared the nature of water to produce living
beings:(3) a sufficient proof for those who ask if the Holy Spirit took an
active part in the creation of the world.

7. And God said, Let there be light:(4) T e first word of God created
the nature of light; it made darkness vanish, dispelled gloom, illuminated
the world, and gave to all beings at the same time a sweet and gracious
aspect. The heavens, until then enveloped in darkness, appeared with that
beauty which they still present to our eyes. The air was lighted up, or
rather made the light circulate  mixed with its substance, and,
distributing its  splendour rapidly in every direction, so dispersed itself
to its extreme limits. Up it sprang to the very aether and heaven. In an
instant it lighted up the whole extent of the world, the North and the
South, the East and the West. For the aether also is such a subtle
substance and so transparent that it needs not the space of a moment for
light to pass through it. Just as it carries our sight instantaneously to
the object of vision,(1) so without the least interval, with a rapidity I
that thought cannot conceive, it receives these rays of light in its
uttermost limits. With light the aether becomes more pleasing and the
waters more limpid. These last, not content with receiving its splendour,
return it by the reflection of light and in all directions send forth
quivering flashes. The divine word gives every object a more cheerful and a
more attractive appearance, just as when men in deep sea pour in oil they
make the place about them clear. So, with a single word and in one instant,
the Creator of all things gave the boon of light to the world.(2)

Let there be light. The order was itself an operation, and a state of
things was brought into being, than which man’s mind   cannot even imagine
a pleasanter one for our enjoyment. It must be well understood that when we
speak of the voice, of the word, of the command of God, this divine
language does not mean to us a sound which escapes from the organs of
speech, a collision of air(3) struck by the tongue; it is a simple sign of
the will of God, and, if we give it the form of an order, it is only the
better to impress the souls whom we instruct.(4)

And God saw the light, that it was good.(5) How can we worthily praise
light after the testimony given by the Creator to its goodness? The word,
even among us, refers the judgment to the eyes, incapable of raising itself
to the idea that the senses have already received.(6) But, if beauty in
bodies results from symmetry of parts, and the harmonious appearance of
colours, how in a simple and homogeneous essence like light, can this idea
of beauty be preserved? Would not the symmetry in light be less shown in
its parts than in the pleasure and delight at the sight of it? Such is also
the beauty of gold, which it owes not to the happy mingling of its parts,
but only to its beautiful colour which has a charm attractive to the eyes.

Thus again, the evening star is the most beautiful of the stars:(1) not
that the parts of which it is composed form a harmonious whole; but thanks
to the unalloyed and beautiful brightness which meets our eyes. And
further, when God proclaimed the goodness of light, it was not in regard to
the charm of the eye but as a provision for future advantage, because at
that time there were as yet no eyes to judge of its beauty. “And God
divided the light from the darkness;(2) that is to say, God gave them
natures incapable of mixing, perpetually in opposition to each other, and
put between them the widest space and distance.

8. “And God called the light Day and the darkness he called Night.”(2)
Since the birth of the sun, the light that it diffuses in the air, when
shining on our hemisphere, is day; and the shadow produced by its
disappearance is night. But at that time it was not after the movement of
the sun, but following this primitive light spread abroad in the air or
withdrawn in a measure determined by God, that day came and was followed by
night.

“And the evening and the morning were the first day.”(4) Evening is
then the boundary common to day and night; and in the same way morning
constitutes the approach of night to day. It was to give day the privileges
of seniority that Scripture put the end of the first day before that of the
first night, because night follows day: for, before the creation of light,
the world was not in night, but in darkness. It is the opposite of day
which was called night, and it did not receive its name until after day.
Thus were created the evening and the morning.(5) Scripture means the space
of a day and a night, and afterwards no more says day and night, but calls
them both under the name of the more important: a custom which you will
find throughout Scripture. Everywhere the measure of time is counted by
days, without mention of nights. “The days of our years,”(1) says the
Psalmist. “Few and evil have the days of the years of my life been,”(2)
said Jacob, and elsewhere “all the days of my life.”(3) Thus under the form
of history the law is laid down for what is to follow.

And the evening and the morning were one day.(4) Why does Scripture say
“one day the first day”? Before speaking to us of the second, the third,
and the fourth days, would it not have been more natural to call that one
the first which began the series? If it therefore says “one day,” it is
from a wish to determine the measure of day and night, and to combine the
time that they contain. Now twenty-four hours fill up the space of one day-
-we mean of a day and of a night; and if, at the time of the solstices,
they have not both an equal length, the time marked by  Scripture does not
the less circumscribe their duration. It is as though it said: twenty-four
hours measure the space of a day, or that, in reality a day is the time
that the heavens starting from one point take to return there. Thus, every
time that, in the revolution of the sun, evening and morning occupy the
world, their periodical succession never exceeds the space of one day.

But must we believe in a mysterious reason for this? God who made the
nature of time measured it out and determined it by intervals of days; and,
wishing to give it a week as a measure, he ordered the week to revolve from
period to period upon itself, to count the movement of time, forming the
week of one day revolving seven times upon itself: a proper circle begins
and ends with itself. Such is also the character of eternity, to revolve
upon itself and to end nowhere. If then the beginning of time is called
“one day” rather than “the first day,” it is because Scripture wishes to
establish its relationship with eternity. It was, in reality, fit and
natural to call “one” the day whose character is to be one wholly separated
and isolated from all the others. If Scripture speaks to us of many ages,
saying everywhere, “age of age, and ages of ages,” we do not see it
enumerate them as first, second, and third. It follows that we are hereby
shown not so much limits, ends and succession of ages, as distinctions
between various states and modes of action. “The day of the Lord,”
Scripture says, “is great and very terrible,”(5) and elsewhere “Woe unto
you that desire the day of the Lord: to what end is it for you? The day of
the Lord is darkness and not light.”(1) A day of darkness for those who are
worthy of darkness. No; this day without evening, without succession and
without end is not unknown to Scripture, and it is the day that the
Psalmist calls the eighth day, because it is outside this time of weeks.(2)
Thus whether you call it day, or whether you call it eternity, you express
the same idea. Give this state the name of day; there are not several, but
only one. If you call it eternity still it is unique and not manifold. Thus
it is in order that you may carry your thoughts forward towards a future
life, that Scripture marks by the word “one” the day which is the type of
eternity, the first fruits of days, the contemporary of light, the holy
Lord’s day honoured by the Resurrection of our Lord. And the evening and
the morning were one day.”

But, whilst I am conversing with you about the first evening of the
world, evening takes me by surprise, and puts an end to my discourse. May
the Father of the true light, Who has adorned day with celestial light, Who
has made the fire to shine which illuminates us during the night, Who
reserves for us in the peace of a future age a spiritual and everlasting
light, enlighten your hearts in the knowledge of truth, keep you from
stumbling, and grant that “you may walk honestly as in the day.”(3) Thus
shall you shine as the sun in the midst of the glory of the saints, and I
shall glory in you in the day of Christ, to Whom belong all glory and power
for ever and ever. Amen.

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