HOMILY VII: The creation of moving creatures.

1. “And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving
creature that hath life” after their kind, “and fowl that may fly above the
earth” after their kind.[3] After the creation of the luminaries the waters
are now filled with living beings and its own adornment is given to this
part of the world. Earth had received hers from her own plants, the heavens
had received the flowers of the stars, and, like two eyes, the great
luminaries beautified them in concert. It still retained for the waters to
receive their adornment. The command was given, and immediately the rivers
and lakes becoming fruitful brought forth their natural broods; the sea
travailed with all kinds of swimming creatures; not even in mud and marshes
did the water remain idle; it took its part in creation. Everywhere from
its ebullition frogs, gnats and flies came forth. For that which we see to-
day is the sign of the past. Thus everywhere the water hastened to obey the
Creator’s command. Who could count the species which the great and
ineffable power of God caused to be suddenly seen living and moving, when
this command had empowered the waters to bring forth life? Let the waters
bring forth moving creatures that have life. Then for the first time is
made a being with life and feeling. For though plants and trees be said to
live, seeing that they share the power of being nourished and growing;
nevertheless they are neither living beings, nor have they life.[1] To
create these last God said, “Let the water produce moving creatures.”

Every creature that swims, whether it skims on the surface of the
waters, or cleaves the depths, is of the nature of a moving creature,[2]
since it drags itself on the body of the water. Certain aquatic animals
have feet and walk; especially amphibia, such as seals, crabs, crocodiles,
river horses[3] and frogs; but they are above all gifted with the power of
swimming. Thus it is said, Let the waters produce moving creatures. In
these few words what species is omitted? Which is not included in the
command of the Creator? Do we not see viviparous animals, seals, dolphins,
rays and all cartilaginous animals? Do we not see oviparous animals
comprising every sort of fish, those which have a skin and those which have
scales, those which have fins and those which have not? This command has
only required one word, even less than a word, a sign, a motion of the
divine will, and it has such a wide sense that it includes all the
varieties and all the families of fish. To review them all would be to
undertake to count the waves of the ocean or to measure its waters in the
hollow of the hand. “Let the waters produce moving creatures.” That is to
say, those which people the high seas and those which love the shores;
those which inhabit the depths and those which attach themselves to rocks;
those which are gregarious and those which live dispersed, the cetaceous,
the huge, and the tiny. It is from the same power, the same command, that
all, small and great receive their existence. “Let the waters bring forth.”
These words show you the natural affinity of animals which swim in the
water; thus, fish, when drawn out of the water, quickly die, because they
have no respiration such as could attract our air and water is their
element, as air is that of terrestrial animals. The reason for it is clear.
With us the lung, that porous and spongy portion of the inward parts which
receives air by the dilatation of the chest, disperses and cools interior
warmth; in fish the motion of the gills, which open and shut by turns to
take in and to eject the water, takes the place of respiration.[1] Fish
have a peculiar lot, a special nature, a nourishment of their own, a life
apart. Thus they cannot be tamed and cannot bear the touch of a man’s

2. “Let the waters bring forth moving creatures after their kind.” God
caused to be born the firstlings of each species to serve as seeds for
nature. Their multitudinous numbers are kept up in subsequent succession,
when it is necessary for them to grow and multiply. Of another kind is the
species of testacea, as muscles, scallops, sea snails, conches, and the
infinite variety of oysters. Another kind is that of the crustacea, as
crabs and lobsters; another of fish without shells, with soft and tender
flesh, like polypi and cuttle fish. And amidst these last what an
innumerable variety! There are weevers, lampreys and eels, produced in the
mud of rivers and ponds, which more resemble venomous reptiles than fish in
their nature. Of another kind is the species of the ovipara; of another,
that of the vivipara. Among the latter are sword-fish, cod, in one word,
all cartilaginous fish, and even the greater part of the cetacea, as
dolphins, seals, which, it is said, if they see their little ones, still
quite young, frightened, take them back into their belly to protect

Let the waters bring forth after kind. The species of the cetacean is
one;  another is that of small fish. What infinite variety in the different
kinds! All have their own names, different food, different form, shape, and
quality of flesh. All present infinite variety, and are divided into
innumerable classes. Is there a tunny fisher who can enumerate to us the
different varieties of that fish? And yet they tell us that at the sight of
great swarms of fish they can almost tell the number of the individual ones
which compose it. What man is there of all that have spent their long lives
by coasts and shores, who can inform us with exactness of the history of
all fish?

Some are known to the fishermen of the Indian ocean, others to the
toilers of the Egyptian gulf, others to the islanders, others to the men of
Mauretania.(2) Great and small were all alike created by this first command
by this ineffable power. What a difference in their food! What a variety in
the manner in which each species reproduces itself! Most fish do not hatch
eggs like birds; they do not build nests; they do not feed their young with
toil; it is the water which receives and vivifies the egg dropped into it.
With them the reproduction of each species is invariable, and natures are
not mixed. There are none of those unions which, on the earth, produce
mules and certain birds contrary to the nature of their species. With fish
there is no variety which, like the ox and the sheep, is armed with a half-
equipment of teeth, none which ruminates except, according to certain
writers, the scar.(3) All have serried and very sharp teeth, for fear their
food should escape them if they masticate it for too long a time. In fact,
if it were not crushed and swallowed as soon as divided, it would be
carried away by the water.

3. The food of fish differs according to their species. Some feed on
mud; others eat sea weed; others content themselves with the herbs that
grow in water. But the greater part devour each other, and the smaller is
food for the larger, and if one which has possessed itself of a fish weaker
than itself becomes a prey to another, the conqueror and the conquered are
both swallowed up in the belly of the last. And we mortals, do we act
otherwise when we press our inferiors?(1) What difference is there between
the last fish and the man who, impelled by devouring greed, swallows the
weak in the folds of his insatiable avarice? Yon fellow possessed the goods
of the poor; you caught him and made him a part of your abundance. You have
shown yourself more unjust than the unjust, and more miserly than the
miser. Look to it lest you end like the fish, by hook, by weel, or by net.
Surely we too, when we have done the deeds of the wicked, shall not escape
punishment at the last.

Now see what tricks, what cunning, are to be found in a weak animal,
and learn not to imitate wicked doers. The crab loves the flesh of the
oyster; but, sheltered by its   shell, a solid rampart with which nature
has furnished its soft and delicate flesh, it is a difficult prey to seize.
Thus they call the oyster “sherd-hide.”(2) Thanks to the two shells with
which it is enveloped, and which adapt themselves perfectly the one to the
other, the claws of the crab are quite powerless. What does he do? When he
sees it, sheltered from the wind, warming itself with pleasure, and half
opening its shells to the sun,(3) he secretly throws in a pebble, prevents
them from closing, and takes by cunning what force had lost.(4) Such is the
malice of these animals, deprived as they are of reason and of speech. But
I would that you should at once rival the crab in cunning and industry, and
abstain from harming your neighbour; this animal is the image of him who
craftily approaches his brother, takes advantage of his neighbour’s
misfortunes, and finds his delight in other men’s troubles. O copy not the
damned! Content yourself with your own lot. Poverty, with what is
necessary, is of more value in the eyes of the wise than all pleasures.

I will not pass in silence the cunning and trickery of the squid, which
takes the colour of the rock to which it attaches itself. Most fish swim
idly up to the squid as they might to a rock, and become themselves the
prey of the crafty creature.(5) Such are men who court ruling powers,
bending themselves to all circumstances and not remaining for a moment in
the same purpose; who praise self-restraint in the company of the self-
restrained, and license in that of the licentious, accommodating their
feelings to the pleasure of each. It is difficult to escape them and to put
ourselves on guard against their mischief; because it is trader the mask of
friendship that they hide their clever wickedness. Men like this are
ravening wolves covered with sheep’s clothing, as the Lord calls them.(1)
Flee then fickleness and pliability; seek truth, sincerity, simplicity. The
serpent is shifty; so he has been condemned to crawl. The just is an honest
man, like Job.(2) Wherefore God setteth the solitary in families.(3) So is
this great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, both
small and great beasts.(4) Yet a wise and marvellous order reigns among
these animals. Fish do not always deserve our reproaches; often they offer
us useful examples. How is it that each sort of fish, content with the
region that has been assigned to it, never travels over its own limits to
pass into foreign seas? No surveyor has ever distributed to them their
habitations, nor enclosed them in walls, nor assigned limits to them; each
kind has been naturally assigned its own home. One gulf nourishes one kind
of fish, another other sorts; those which swarm here are absent elsewhere.
No mountain raises its sharp peaks between them; no rivers bar the passage
to them; it is a law of nature, which according to the needs of each kind,
has allotted to them their dwelling places with equality and justice.(5)

4. It is not thus with us. Why? Because we incessantly move the ancient
landmarks which our fathers have set.(1) We encroach, we add house to
house, field to field, to enrich ourselves at the expense of our neighbour.
The great fish know the sojourning place that nature has assigned to them;
they occupy the sea far from the haunts of men, where no islands lie, and
where are no continents rising to confront them, because it has never been
crossed and neither curiosity nor need has persuaded sailors to tempt it.
The monsters that dwell in this sea are in size like high mountains, so
witnesses who have seen tell us, and never cross their boundaries to ravage
islands and seaboard towns. Thus each kind is as if it were stationed in
towns, in villages, in an ancient country, and has for its dwelling place
the regions of the sea which have been assigned to it.

Instances have, however, been known of migratory fish, who, as if
common deliberation transported them into strange regions, all start on
their march at a given sign. When the time marked for breeding arrives,
they, as if awakened by a common law of nature, migrate from gulf to gulf,
directing their course toward the North Sea. And at the epoch of their
return you may see all these fish streaming like a torrent across the
Propontis towards the Euxine Sea. Who puts them in marching array? Where is
the prince’s order? Has an edict affixed in the public place indicated to
them their day of departure? Who serves them as a guide? See how the divine
order embraces all and extends to the smallest object. A fish does not
resist God’s law, and we men cannot endure His precepts of salvation! Do
not despise fish because they are dumb and quite unreasoning; rather fear
lest, in your resistance to the disposition of the Creator, you have even
less reason than they. Listen to the fish, who by their  actions all but
speak and say: it is for the perpetuation of our race that we undertake
this long voyage. They have not the gift of reason, but they have the law
of nature firmly seated within them, to show them what they have to do. Let
us go, they say, to the North Sea. Its water is sweeter than that of the
rest of the sea; for the sun does not remain long there, and its rays do
not draw up all the drinkable portions.(1) Even sea creatures love fresh
water.(2) Thus one often sees them enter into rivers and swim far up them
from the sea. This is the reason which makes them  prefer the Euxine Sea to
other gulfs, as the most fit for breeding and for bringing up their young.
When they have obtained their object the whole tribe returns home. Let us
hear these dumb creatures tell us the reason. The Northern sea, they say,
is shallow and its surface is exposed to the violence of the wind, and it
has few shores and retreats. Thus the winds easily agitate it to its bottom
and mingle the sands of its bed with its waves. Besides, it is cold in
winter, filled as it is from all directions by large rivers. Wherefore
after a moderate enjoyment of its waters, during the summer, when the
winter comes they hasten to reach warmer depths and places heated by the
sun, and after fleeing froth the stormy tracts of the North, they seek a
haven in less agitated seas.

5. I myself have seen these marvels, and I have admired the wisdom of
God in all things, If beings deprived of reason are capable of thinking and
of providing for their own preservation; if a fish knows what it ought to
seek and what to shun, what shall we say, who are honoured with reason.
instructed by law, encouraged by the promises, made wise by the Spirit, and
are nevertheless less reasonable about our own affairs than the fish? They
know how to provide for the future, but we renounce our hope of the future
and spend our life in brutal indulgence. A fish traverses the extent of the
sea to find what is good for it; what will yon say then–you who live in
idleness, the mother of all vices?(3) Do not let any one make his ignorance
an excuse. There has been implanted in us natural reason which tells us to
identify ourselves with good, and to avoid all that is harmful. I need not
go far from the sea to find examples, as that is the object of our
researches. I have heard it said by one living near the sea, that the sea
urchin, a little contemptible creature, often foretells calm and tempest to
sailors. When it foresees a disturbance of the winds, it gets under a great
pebble, and clinging to it as to an anchor, it tosses about in safety,
retained by the weight which prevents it from becoming the plaything of the
waves.(1) It is a certain sign for sailors that they are threatened with a
violent agitation of the winds. No astrologer, no Chaldaean, reading in the
rising of the stars the disturbances of the air, has ever communicated his
secret to the urchin: it is the Lord of the sea and of the winds who has
impressed on this little animal a manifest proof of His great wisdom. God
has foreseen all, He has neglected nothing. His eye, which never sleeps,
watches over all.(2) He is present everywhere and gives to each being the
means of preservation. If God has not left the sea urchin outside His
providence, is He without care for you?

“Husbands love your wives.”(3) Although formed of two bodies you are
united to live in the communion of wedlock. May this natural link, may this
yoke imposed by the blessing, reunite those who are divided. The viper, the
cruelest of reptiles, unites itself with the sea lamprey, and, announcing
its presence by a hiss, it calls it from the depths to conjugal union. The
lamprey obeys, and is united to this venomous animal.(4) What does this
mean? However hard, however fierce a husband may be, the wife ought to bear
with him, and not wish to find any pretext for breaking the union. He
strikes you, but he is your husband. He is a drunkard, but he is united to
you by nature. He is brutal and cross, but he is henceforth one of your
members, and the most precious of all.

6. Let husbands listen as well: here is a lesson for them. The viper
vomits forth its venom in respect for marriage; and you, will you not put
aside the barbarity and the inhumanity of your soul, out of respect for
your union? Perhaps the example of the viper contains another meaning. The
union of the viper and of the lamprey is an adulterous violation of nature.
You, who are plotting against other men’s wedlock, learn what creeping
creature you are like. I have only one object, to make all I say turn to
the edification of the Church. Let then libertines put a restraint on their
passions, for they are taught by the examples set by creatures of earth and

My bodily infirmity and the lateness of the hour force me to end my
discourse. However, I have still many observations to make on the products
of the sea, for the admiration of my attentive audience. To speak of the
sea itself, how does its water change into salt? How is it that coral, a
stone so much esteemed, is a plant in the midst of the sea, and when once
exposed to the air becomes hard as a rock? Why has nature enclosed in the
meanest of animals, in an oyster, so precious an object as a pearl? For
these pearls, which are coveted by the caskets of kings, are cast upon the
shores, upon the coasts, upon sharp rocks, and enclosed in oyster shells.
How can the sea pinna produce her fleece of gold, which no dye has ever
imitated?(1) How can shells give kings purple of a brilliancy not surpassed
by the flowers of the field?

“Let the waters bring forth.” What necessary object was there that did
not immediately appear? What object of luxury was not given to man? Some to
supply his needs, some to make him contemplate the marvels of creation.
Some are terrible, so as to take oar idleness to school. “God created great
whales.”(2) Scripture gives them the name of “great” not because they are
greater than a shrimp and a sprat, but because the size of their bodies
equals that of great hills. Thus when they swim on the surface of the
waters one often sees them appear like islands. But these monstrous
creatures do not frequent our coasts and shores; they inhabit the Atlantic
ocean. Such are these animals created to strike us with terror and awe. If
now you hear say that the greatest vessels, sailing with full sails, are
easily stopped by a very small fish, by the remora, and so forcibly that
the ship remains motionless for a long time, as if it had taken root in the
middle of the sea,(3) do you not see in this little creature a like proof
of the power of the Creator? Sword fish, saw fish, dog fish, whales, and
sharks, are not therefore the only things to be dreaded; we have to fear no
less the spike of the stingray even after its death,(1) and the sea-
hare,(2) whose mortal blows are as rapid as they are inevitable. Thus the
Creator wishes that all may keep you awake, so that full of hope in Him you
may avoid the evils with which all these creatures threaten you.

But let us come out of the depths of the sea and take refuge upon the
shore. For the marvels of creation, coming one after the other in constant
succession like the waves, have submerged my discourse. However, I should
not be surprised if, after finding greater wonders upon the earth, my
spirit seeks like Jonah’s to flee to the sea. But it seems to me, that
meeting with these innumerable marvels has made me forget all measure, and
experience the fate of those who navigate the high seas without a fixed
point to mark their progress, anti are often ignorant of the space which
they have traversed. This is what has happened to me; whilst my words
glanced at creation, I have not been sensible of the multitude of beings of
which I spoke to you. But although this honourable assembly is pleased by
my speech, and the recital of the marvels of the Master is grateful to the
ears of His servants, let me here bring the ship of my discourse to anchor,
and await the day to deliver you the rest. Let us, therefore, all arise,
and, giving thanks for what has been said, let us ask for strength to hear
the rest. Whilst taking your food may the conversation at your table turn
upon what has occupied us this morning and this evening. Filled with these
thoughts may you, even in sleep, enjoy the pleasure of the day, so that you
may be permitted to say, “I sleep but my heart waketh,”(3) meditating day
and night upon the law   of the Lord, to Whom be glory and power world
without end. Amen.