THE HISTORY OF HERESIES, AND THEIR REFUTATION; OR, THE TRIUMPH OF THE CHURCH

TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN OF ST. ALPHONSUS M. LIGUORI, BY THE REV. JOHN T.

MULLOCK, OF THE ORDER OF ST, FRANCIS.

DUBLIN: PUBLISHED BY JAMES DUFFY, 10, WELLINGTON-QUAY. 1847.

PRINTED BY WILLIAM HOLDIN, 10, Abbey-street.

 

TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE

AUTHOR’S PREFACE

CHAPTER I. HERESIES OF THE FIRST CENTURY. – 1. -Simon Magus. 2.-Menander. 3.-Cerinthus. 4.-Ebion. 5.-Saturninus and Basilides. 6.-The Nicholites

CHAPTER II. HERESIES OF THE SECOND CENTURY. – l.-Corpocrates. 2.- Valentine. 3.-Epiphanes. 4.-Prodicus. 5. Tatian. 6. Sevems. 7.-Cerdonius. 8.-Marcion. 9.-Apelles. 10-Montanus. ll.-Cataphrigians, Artotirites, Peputians, Ascodrogites, Pattalorinchites. 12.-Bardesanes, 13.-Theodotus the Currier, Artemon, and Theodotus Argentarius. 14.-Hermogenes

CHAPTER III. – HERESIES OF THE THIRD CENTURY. -1.-Praxeas. 2.-Sabellius. 3. -Paul of Samosata. 4.-Manes. 5.- Tertullian. 6.-Origen. 7.-Novatus and Novatian. 8.-Nipos. The Angelicals and the Apostolicals

CHAPTER IV. HERESIES OF THE FOURTH CENTURY.

ARTICLE I. – SCHISM AND HERESY OF THE DONATISTS. – 1, 2.Schism. 3.-Heresy. 4, 5.-Confutation of St.Augustine. Circumcellionists. 6.-Conference commanded by Honorius. 7. -Death of St. Marcellinus, and Council of Carthage

 

ARTICLE II. THE ARIAN HERESY.

I -PROGRESS OF ARIUS, AND HIS CONDEMATION BY THE COUNCIL OF NICE. – 8.Origin of Arius. 9.-His Errors and Supporters. 10.-Synod of Bythynia. 11. -Synod of Osius in Alexandria. 12. – General Council of Nice. 13.-Condemnation of Arius. 14-16.-Profession of Faith. 17.-Exile of Eusebius of Nicomedia, and insidious Letter of Eusebius of Cesarea. 18.- Banishment of Arius. 19.-Decree for the Meletians. 20.-Decree for the Quartodecimans. 21.-Canons. 22.-End of the Council

II. OCCURRENCES UP TO THE DEATH OF CONSTANTINE. – 23. -St. Athanasius is made Bishop of Alexandria; Eusebius is recalled; St. Eustasius exiled, and Arius again taken into favour. 24.- Council of Tyre. 25.-St. Athanasius accused and exiled. 26. -Arius banished from Alexandria. 27.-His Perjury and horrible Death. 28. -Constantine’s Baptism and Death; Division of the Empire.

III.THE EMPEROR CONSTANTIUS PERSECUTES THE CATHOLICS. 30.Eusebius of Nicomedia is translated to the See of Constantinople; Synods in Alexandria and Antioch. 31. -Council of Sardis. 32-Council of Aries. 33.-Council of Milan, and Exile of Liberius. 34.~Exile of Osius. 35.-Fall of Osius. 36. – Pall of Liberius. 37. – First Formula of Sirmium. 38. -Second Formula of Sirmium. 39. -Third Formula of Sirmium. 40. -Liberius signs the Formula, &c. 41, 42. -He signs the first Formula. 43.-Return of Liberius to Rome, and Death of Felix. 44. -Division among the Arians. 45-48,-Counoil of Rimini. 49.-Death of Constantius. 50. -The Empire descends to Julian. The Schism of Lucifer

IV. PERSECUTION OF VALENS, OF GENNERIC, OF HUNNERIC, AND OTHER ARIAN KINGS. – 51. -Julian is made Emperor, and dies. 52.-Jovian Emperor; his Death. 53.-Valentinian and Valens Emperors. 54.-Death of Liberius. 55, 56.-Valens puts eighty Ecclesiastics to Death – his other Cruelties. 57. – Lucius persecutes the Solitaries. 58.-Dreadful Death of Valens. 59-61 .-Persecution of Genseric. 62-64. -Persecution of Hunneric. 65.-Persecution of Theodoric. 67, 68. -Persecution of Leovigild

ARTICLE III. 69-74. – Heresy of Macedonius. 75 – 77. -Of Apollinaris. 78. -Of Elvidius. 79.-Of Aetius. 80, 81. -The Messalians. 82.The Priscillianists. 83.-Jovinians. 84.-Other Heretics. 85.-Of Audeus, in particular.

CHAPTER V. HERESIES OF THE FIFTH CENTURY.

ARTICLE I. THE HERESIES OF ELVIDIUS, JOVINIANUS, AND VIGILANTIUS -Heresy of Elvidius. 2.-Errors of Jovinian. 3. -Adverse Opinions of Basnage refuted. 4.-Vigilantius and his Errors

ARTICLE II. ON THE HERESY OF PELAGIUS. – 5. -Origin of the Heresy ofPelagius. 6.-His Errors and Subterfuges. 7-Celestius and his Condemnation. 8.-Perversity of Pelagius. 9.-Council of Diospolis. 10 & ll.-He is Condemned by St. Innocent Pope. 12.Again Condemned by Sozymus. 13,-Julian, a follower of Pelagius. 14.-Semi-Pelagians. 15.-Predestination. 16 & 17.-Godeschalcus

ARTICLE III. THE NESTORIAN HERESY. – 20.-Errors of Nestorius, and his elevation to the Episcopacy. 21. -He approves of the Errors preached by his Priest, Anastasius; his Cruelty. 22. -He is contradicted, and other acts of Cruelty. 23.-St. Cyril’s Letter to him, and his Answer. 24.-The Catholics separate from him. 25. -Letters to St. Celestine, and his Answer. 26.-He is admonished; Anathemas of St. Cyril. 27. -The Sentence of the Pope is intimated to him. 28.-He is cited to the Council. 29.-He is condemned. 30.-The Sentence of the Council is intimated to him. 31. -Cabal of John of Antioch. 32 – Confirmation of the Council by the Legates, in the name of the Pope. 33. -The Pelagians are condemned. 34.-Disagreeable Affair with the Emperor Theodosius. 35.- Theodosius approves of the condemnation of Nestorius, and sends him into Banishment, where he dies. 36.-Laws against the Nestorians. 37.-Efforts of the Nestorians. 38The same subject continued. 39.-It is condemned as heretical to assert that Jesus Christ is the adopted Son of God. 40 – 43. -Answer to Basnage, who has unjustly undertaken the Defence of Nestorius.

 

ARTICLE IV. THE HERESY OF EUTYCHES. – I – THE SYNOD OF ST. FLAVIAN. THE COUNCIL OR CABAL OF EPHESUS, CALLED THE ” LATROCINIUM,” OR COUNCIL OF ROBBERS. 44,-Beginning of Eutyches; he is accused by Eusebius of Dorileum. 45.-St. Flavian receives the charge. 46.-Synod of St. Flavian. 47.- Confession of Eutyches in the Synod. 48.-Sentence of the Synod against Eutyches. 49.-Complaints of Eutyches. 50.-Eutyches writes to St. Peter Chrysologus, and to St. Leo. 51 .-Character of Dioscorus. 52 & 53. -Cabal at Ephesus 54.-St. Flavian is deposed, and Eusebius of Dorileum. 55.-The Errors of Theodore of Mopsuestia. 56.-Death of St. Flavian. 57-Character of Theodoret. 58 and 59. -Writings of Theodoret against St. Cyril. Defence of Theodoret. 60-Dioscorus excommunicates St. Leo. 61.-Theodosius approved the Council or Cabal and dies. 62.-Reign of St. Pulcheria and Martian

ARTICLE V: THE COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON. – 62. -A Council is assembled in Chalcedon, under the Emperor Martian, and the Pope St. Leo. 63.-The cause of Dioscorus is tried in the first Session. 64.-He is Condemned. 65. -Articles of Faith defined in opposition to the Eutychian Heresy, according to the Letter of St. Leo. 66.-Privileges granted by the Council to the Patriarch of Constantinople. 67-Refused by St. Leo. 68.-Eutyches and Dioscorus die in their obstinacy. 69.-Theodosius, head of the Eutychians in Jerusalem. 70.-His Cruelty. 71 .-Death of St. Pulcheria and of Martian. 72.-Timothy Eleurus intruded into the See of Alexandria. 73.Martyrdom of St. Proterius, the true Bishop. 74.-Leo succeeds Marcian in the Empire. 7o.-Eleurus is expelled from the See of Alexandria, and Timothy Salofacialus is elected. 76.-Zeno is made Emperor; he puts Basiliscus to death. Eleurus commits suicide. 77.-St. Simon Stilites. 78.-His happy Death. 79.-Peter the Stammerer intruded into the See of Alexandria

 

III THE HENOTICON OF THE EMPEROR ZENO. – 80.-The Emperor Zeno publishes his Henoticon. 81.-Mongos anathematizes Pope St. Leo and the Council of Chalcedon. 82. -Peter the Fuller intrusted with the See of Antioch. 83. -Adventures and Death of the Fuller. 84.-Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople, dies excommunicated.

CHAPTER VI. – HERESIES OF THE SIXTH CENTURY. –

ARTICLE I. – OF THE ACEPHALI, AND THE DIFFERENT SECTS THEY SPLIT INTO. – 1. -Regulation made by the new Emperor, Anastasius, to the great detriment of the Church. 2. -Anastasius persecutes the Catholics; his awful Death. 3.-The Acephali, and their Chief, Severus. 4.-The Sect of the Jacobites. 5.-The Agnoites. 6.-The Tritheists. 7.-The Corruptibilists. 8.- The Incorruptibilists. 9.-Justinian falls into this error. 10.-Good and bad actions of the Emperor. 11, 12. -The Acemetic Monks; their obstinacy.

ARTICLE II. – THE THREE CHAPTERS. – 13. -Condemnation of the Three Chapters of Theodore, Ibas, and Theodoret. 14, 15. -Defended by Vigilius. 16.-Answer to the objection of a Heretic, who asserts that one Council contradicts another.

CHAPTER VII. – THE HERESIES OF THE SEVENTH CENTURY. –

ARTICLE I. – OF MAHOMETANISM. – 1. -Birth of Mahomet, and Beginning of his False Religion. 2.-The Alcoran filled with Blasphemy and Nonsense

ARTICLE II. – HERESY OF THE MONOTHELITES. – 4.- Commencement of the Monothelites; their Chiefs, Sergius and Cyrus. 5.-Opposed by Sophronius. 6.-Letter of Sergius to Pope Honorius, and his Answer. 7.-Defence of Honorius. 8.-Honorius erred, but did not fall into any Error against Faith. 9. -The Ecthesis of Heraclius afterwards condemned by Pope John IV. 10.-The Type of the Emperor Constaris. 11. -Condemnation of Paul and Pyrrhus. 12. -Dispute of St. Maximus with Pyrrhus. 13.-Cruelty of Constans; his violent Death. 14.-Condemnation of the Monothelites in the Sixth Council. 15.-Honorius Condemned in that Council, not for Heresy, but for his negligence in repressing heresy

CHAPTER VIII. – HERESIES OF THE EIGHTH CENTURY. – THE HERESY OF THE ICONOCLASTS. – 1. -Beginning of the Iconoclasts. 2, 3.-St. Germanus opposes the Emperor Leo. 4.-He resigns the See of Constantinople. 5.-Anastasius is put in his place; Resistance of the Women. 6.- Cruelty of Leo. 7 Leo endeavours to pnt the Pope to death; opposition of the Romans. 8.Letter of the Pope. 9. -A Council is Held in Rome in support of the Sacred Images, but Leo continues his Persecution. 10. -His hand is miraculously restored to St. John of Damascus. 11. -Leo dies, and is succeeded by Constantine Copronymus, a greater Persecutor; Death of the impious Patriarch Anastasius. 12. -Council held by Constantine. 13.-Martyrs in honour of the Images. 14.-0ther tyrannical Acts of Constantine, and his horrible Death. 15.-Leo IV. Succeeds to the Empire, and is succeeded by his Son, Constantine. 16.-The Empress Irene, in her Son’s name, demands a Council. 17.-Seditions against the Council. 18.-The Council is held, and the Veneration of Images established. 19- Erroneous opinion of the Council of Frankfort, regarding the Eighth General Council. 20.-Persecution again renewed by the Iconoclasts.

CHAPTER IX. – HERESIES OF THE NINTH CENTURY. – ARTICLE I. – THE GREEK SCHISM COMMENCED BY PHOTIUS. -l.-St. Ignatius, by means of Bardas, Uncle to the Emperor Michael, is expelled from the See of Constantinople. 2. -He is replaced by Photius. 3.-Photius is consecrated. 4. -Wrongs inflicted on St. Ignatius, and on the Bishops who defended him. 5.-The Pope sends Legates to investigate the affair. 6.-St. Ignatius appeals from the Judgment of the Legates to the Pope himself. 7.- He is deposed in a False Council. 8.-The Pope defends St. Ignatius. 9.-The Pope deposes the Legates and Photius, and confirms St. Ignatius in his See. 10. -Bardas is put to death by the Emperor, and he associates Basil in the Empire. 11. -Photius condemns and deposes Pope Nicholas II., and afterwards promulgates his Error concerning the Holy Ghost. 12.-The Emperor Michael is killed, and Basil is elected, and banishes Photius

ARTICLE II. – THE ERRORS OF THE GREEKS CONDEMNED IN THREE GENERAL COUNCILS. – 13, 14, 15.-The Eighth General Council against Photius, under Pope Adrian, and the Emperor Basil. 16.-Photius gains over Basil, and in the mean time St. Ignatius dies. 17.- Photius again gets possession of the See. 18.-The Council held by Photius, rejected by the Pope; unhappy death of Photius. 19.-The Patriarch, Cerularius, revives and adds to the errors of Photius. 20.-TJnhappy death of Cerularius. 21, 22.-Gregory X. convokes the Council of Lyons, at the instance of the Emperor Michael; it is assembled. 23. -Profession of Faith written by Michael, and approved of by the Council. 24.- The Greeks confess and swear to the Decisions of the Council. 25. They separate again. 26.-Council of Florence, under Eugenius IV.; the errors are again discussed and rejected; definition of the Procession of the Holy Ghost. 27-.Of the consecration in leavened bread. 28.-Of the Pains of Purgatory. 29.-Of the Glory of the Blessed. 30.-Of the Primacy of the Pope. 31.-Instructions given to the Armenians, Jacobites, and Ethiopians; the Greeks relapse into schism.

CHAPTER X. – THE HERESIES WHICH SPRUNG UP FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY

ARTICLE I. – HERESIES OF THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. – 1. -Stephen and Lisosius burned for their Errors. 2.-The new Nicholites and the Incestuosists. 3.-Berengarius, and the principles of his Heresy. 4.-His Condemnation and Relapse. 5.-His Conversion and Death.

ARTICLE II. – HERESIES OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY. – 6. -The Petrobrussians. 7. -Henry, and his Disciples. 8.-Their condemnation. 9.-Peter Abelard, and his Errors concerning the Trinity. 10.-His condemnation. 11. – His Conversion and Death. 12.-His particular Errors. 13.- Arnold of Brescia; his Errors and condemnation. 14.-Causes a Sedition, and is burned alive. 15. Gilbert de la Force; his Errors and Conversion. 16.- Folmar, Tanquelinus, and the Abbot Joachim; the Apostolicals and the Bogomiles. 17. -Peter Waldo and his Followers under different denominations Waldenses, Poor Men of Lyons, &c. 18.-Their particular Errors, and condemnation

ARTICLE III. – HERESIES OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. – 19.-The Albigenses and their Errors. 20.- The Corruption of their Morals. 21. -Conferences held with them, and their Obstinacy. 22. -They create an Anti-Pope. 23.-Glorious Labours of St. Dominick, and his stupendous Miracles. 24.-Crusade under the command of Count Montfort, in which he is victorious. 25. Glorious death of the Count, and Destruction of the Albigenses. 26.-Sentence of the Fourth Council of Lateran, in which the Dogma is defined in opposition to their Tenets. 27 – Amalric and his Heresy; the Errors added by his Disciples; they are condemned. 28.- William de St. Amour and his Errors. 29. -The Flagellants and their Errors. 30.-The Fratricelli and their Errors, condemned by John XXII.

ARTICLE IV. – HERESIES OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. – 31. -The Beghards and Beguines; their errors condemned by Clement V. 32.-Marsilius of Padua, and John Jandunus; their writings condemned as heretical by John XXII. 33.-John Wicklifle, and the beginning of his heresy. 34.-Is assisted by John Ball; death of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 35.-The Council of Constance condemns forty-five Articles of Wickliffe. 36, 37.-Miraculous confirmation of the Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist. 38.-Death of Wickliffe.

ARTICLE V. – HERESIES OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. – THE HERESY OF JOHN HUSS, AND JEROME OF PRAGUE. – 39. John Huss’s character, and the commencement of his Heresy. 40.-His Errors. 41.-He Is condemned in a Synod. 42.-Council of Constance he is obliged to appear at it. 43. -He comes to Constance, and endeavours to escape. 44, 45. -He presents himself before the Council, and continues obstinate. 46.-He is condemned to death, and burned. 47.-Jerome of Prague is also burned alive for his obstinacy. 48.-Wars of the Hussites they are conquered and converted

CHAPTER XI. – THE HERESIES OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. –

ARTICLE I. – OF THE HERESIES OF LUTHER. – I- THE BEGINNING AND PROGRESS OF THE LUTHERAN HERESY. 1. -Erasmus of Rotterdam, called by some the Precursor of Luther; his Literature. 2.-His Doctrine was not sound, nor could it be called heretical. 3.-Principles of Luther; his familiarity with the Devil, who persuades him to abolish Private Masses. 4. -He joins the Order of the Hermits of St. Augustine. 5.-Doctrines and Vices of Luther. 6. -Publication of Indulgences, and his Theses on that Subject. 7–He is called to Rome, and clears himself; the Pope sends Cardinal Cajetan as his Legate to Germany. 8.-Meeting between the Legate and Luther. 9.-Luther perseveres and appeals to the Pope. 10, 11 .-Conference of Ecchius with the Heretics. 12.-Bull of Leo X., condemning forty-one Errors of Luther, who burns the Bull and the Decretals.

II -THE DIETS AND PRINCIPAL CONGRESSES HELD CONCERNING THE HERESY OF LUTHER. – 13.-Diet of Worms, where Luther appeared before Charles V., and remains obstinate. 14.-Edict of the Emperor against Luther, who is concealed by the Elector in one of his Castles. 15. -Diet of Spire, where the Emperor publishes a Decree, against which the heretics protest. 16.-Conference with the Zuinglians; Marriage of Luther with an Abbess. 17.-Diet of Augsburg, and Melancthon’s Profession of Faith; Melancthon’s Treatise, in favour of the authority of the Pope, rejected by Luther. 18.-Another Edict of the Emperor in favour of Religion. 19.-League of Smalkald broken up by the Emperor. 20. -Dispensation given by the Lutherans to the Landgrave to have two wives. 21. -Council of Trent, to which Luther refuses to come; he dies, cursing the Council. 22.-The Lutherans divided into fifty-six Sects. 23. -The Second Diet of Augsburg, in which Charles V. published the injurious Formula of the Interim. 24, 25. -The heresy of Luther takes possession of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and other Kingdoms.

III. – ERRORS OF LUTHER. – 26. -Forty-one Errors of Luther condemned by Leo X. 27.-Other Errors taken from his Books. 28.Luther’s Remorse of Conscience. 29.-His Abuse of Henry VIII.; his erroneous translation of the New Testament; the Books he rejected. 30.-His method of celebrating Mass. 31. -His Book against the Sacramentarians, who denied the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.

  1. THE DISCIPLES OF LUTHER. – 32.-Melancthon and his Character. 33.-His Faith, and the Augsburg Confession composed by him. 34.-Matthias Flaccus, Author of the Centuries, 35. -John Agricola, Chief of the Antinomians; Atheists. 30.-Andrew Osiander, Francis Stancar, and Andrew Musculus. 37. -John Brenzius, Chief of the Ubiquists. 38.-Gaspar Sneckenfield abhorred even by Luther for his impiety. 39.-Martin Chemnitz, the Prince of Protestant Theologians, and opponent of the Council of Trent.
  2. THE ANABAPTISTS. – 40.-The Anabaptists; they refuse Baptism to Children. 41. -Their Leaders Seditions and Defeat. 42.Are again defeated under their Chief, Munzer, who is converted at his death. 43. -They rebel again under John of Leyden, who causes himself to be crowned King, is condemned to a cruel death, and dies penitent. 44. -Errors of the Anabaptists. 45.-They are split into various sects

ARTICLE II. – THE SACRAMENTARIANS. -I. CARLOSTAD. – 48.-Carlostad, father of the Sacramentarians. 49. -He is reduced to live by his labour in the field; he gets married, and composed a Mass on that subject. 50.-He dies suddenly

ZUINGLIUS. – 51.-Zuinglius, and the beginning of his heresy. 52.-His errors. 53. -Congress held before the Senate of Zurich; the decree of the Senate rejected by the other Cantons. 54.-Zuinglius sells his Canonry, and gets married; Victory of the Catholics; and his death.

III. – ECOLAMPADIUS; BUCER; PETER MARTYR. – 55.-Ecolampadius. 56.-Bucer. 57. -Peter Martyr

ARTICLE III. – THE HERESIES OF CALVIN. – I -THE BEGINNING AND PROGRESS OF THE HERESY OF CALVIN. – 58. Birth and Studies of Calvin. 59.-He begins to broach his heresy; they seek to imprison him, and he makes his escape through a window. 60.-He commences to disseminate his impieties in Angouleme. 61.-He goes to Germany to see Bucer, and meets Erasmus. 62.-He returns to France, makes some followers, and introduces the “Supper;” he afterwards goes to Basle, and finishes his “Instructions.” 63. -He goes to Italy, but is obliged to fly; arrives in Geneva, and is made Master of Theology. 64. -He is embarrassed there. 65.-He flies from Geneva, and returns to Germany, where he marries a widow. 66.-He returns to Geneva, and is put at the head of the Republic; the impious Works he publishes there; his dispute with Bolsec. 67.-He causes Michael Servetus to be burned alive. 68. -Unhappy end of the Calvinistic Mission to Brazil. 69.-Seditions and disturbances in France on Calvin’s account; Conference of Poissy. 70. -Melancholy death of Calvin. 71-His personal qualities and depraved manners.

 

II -THEODORE BEZA, THE HUGUENOTS, AND OTHER CALVINISTS, WHO DISTURBED FRANCE, SCOTLAND, AND ENGLAND. – 72. -Theodore Beza; his character and vices. 73.-His learning, employments, and death. 74.-Conference of St. Francis de Sales with Beza. 75.-Continuation of the same subject. 76, 77 – Disorders of the Huguenots in France. 78.-Horrors committed by them; they are proscribed in France. 79.-Their disorders in Flanders. 80.-And in Scotland. 81 .-Mary Stuart is married to Francis II. 82. -She returns to Scotland, and marries Darnley; next Bothwell; is driven by violence to make a fatal renunciation of her Crown in favour of her son. 83. -She takes refuge in England, and is imprisoned by Elizabeth, and afterwards condemned to death by her. 84.-Edifying death of Mary Stuart. 85.-James I., the son of Mary, succeeds Elizabeth; he is succeeded by his son, Charles I., who was beheaded. 86.-He is succeeded by his son, Charles II., who is succeeded by his brother, James II., a Catholic, who died in France.

III. – THE ERRORS OF CALVIN. – 87. -Calvin adopts the errors of Luther, 88.-Calvin’s errors regarding the Scriptures. 89.-The Trinity. 90.-Jesus Christ. 91. -The Divine Law 92.-Justification, 93.-Good Works and Free Will. 94.-That God predestines man to sin and to hell, and Faith alone in Jesus Christ is sufficient for salvation. 95.-The Sacraments, and especially Baptism. 96.Penance. 97-The Eucharist and the Mass. 98.-He denies Purgatory and Indulgences; other errors

IV- THE DIFFERENT SECTS OF CALVINISTS. – 99.- The Sects into which Calvinism was divided. 100.- The Puritans. 101. The Independents and Presbyterians. 102.-The difference between these Sects. 103.-The Quakers and Tremblers. 104.-The Anglo-Calvinists. 105.-The Piscatorians. 106.-The Arminians and Gomarists

CHAPTER XII. THE HERESIES OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY-(CONTINUED). – ARTICLE I. -THE SCHISM OF ENGLAND.

– l. – THE REIGN OF HENRY VIII. – 1.- Religion of England previous to the Reformation. 2. -Henry VIII. marries Catherine of Arragon, but becomes enamoured of Anna Boleyn. 3.~The wicked Wolsey suggests the invalidity of the marriage Incontinence of Anna Boleyn; suspicion that she was the daughter of Henry. 4.-Calvin refuses to have his cause tried by English Judges; “Wolsey is made prisoner, and dies at Leicester. 5.-Henry seizes on the property of the Church, and marries Anna Boleyn. 6.-He obliges the Clergy to swear obedience to him, and Cranmer declares the marriage of Catherine invalid. 7. -The Pope declares Anna Boleyn’s marriage invalid, and excommunicates Henry, who declares himself Head of the Church. 8. -He persecutes Pole, and puts More and Fisher to death. 9. -The Pope declares Henry unworthy of the kingdom; the King puts Anna Boleyn to death, and marries Jane Seymour. 10.-The Parliament decides on six Articles of Faith; the bones of St. Thomas of Canterbury are burned; Jane Seymour dies in giving birth to Edward VI. 11. -The Pope endeavours to bring Henry to a sense of his duty, but does not succeed. 12. -He marries Anne of Cleves; Cromwell is put to death. 13. -Henry marries Catherine Howard, whom he afterwards put to death, and then marries Catherine Parr. 14.-His remorse in his last sickness. 15. -He makes his will, and dies.

II.- REIGN OF EDWARD VI. – 16.-The Duke of Somerset, as Guardian of Edward VI., governs the kingdom. 17.-He declares himself a heretic, and gives leave to the heretics to preach; invites Bucer, Vermigli, and Ochino to England, and abolishes the Roman Catholic Religion. 18.-He beheads his brother, the Lord High Admiral. 19.-He is beheaded himself. 20.-Death of Edward; the Earl of Warwick makes an attempt to get possession of the kingdom, and is beheaded, but is converted, and dies an edifying death.

II- MARY’S REIGN. – 21. -Mary refuses the title of Head of the Church; repeals her Father’s and Brother’s Laws; Cranmer is condemned to be burned, and dies a heretic; Mary sends off all heretics from her Court. 22,-Cardinal Pole reconciles England with the Church; her marriage with Philip II., and death

III-THE REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 23.-Elizabeth proclaimed Queen; the Pope is dissatisfied, and she declares herself a Protestant. 24.-She gains over the Parliament, through the influence of three of the Nobility, and is proclaimed head of the Church. 25.-She establishes the form of Church Government, and, though her belief is Calvinistic, she retains Episcopacy, & c. 26.-Appropriates Church Property, abolishes the Mass; the Oath of Allegiance; persecution of the Catholics. 27.-Death of Edmund Campion for the Faith. 28.-The Pope’s Bull against Elizabeth. 29.-She dies out of Communion with the Church. 30.-Her successors on the Throne of England; deplorable state of the English Church. 31. -The English Reformation refutes itself.

ARTICLE II. – THE ANTITRINITARIANS AND SOCINIANS. – MICHAEL SERVETUS. – 32.-Character of Servetus; his studies, travels, and false doctrine. 33.-He goes to Geneva; disputes with Calvin, who has him burned to death.

II- VALENTINE GENTILIS, GEORGE BLANDRATA, AND BERNARD OCHINO. – 34.-Valentine Gentilis; his impious doctrine. 35.-He is punished in Geneva, and retracts. 36.-Relapses, and is beheaded. 37.-George Blandrata perverts the Prince of Transylvania; disputes with the Reformers; is murdered. 38.-Bernard Ochino; his life while a Friar; his perversion, and flight to Geneva. 39.-He goes to Strasbourg, and afterwards to England, with Bucer; his unfortunate death in Poland.

III. -THE SOCINIANS. – 40.-Perverse doctrine of Lelius Socinus. 41.-Faustus Socinus; his travels, writings, and death. 42.-Errors of the Socinians.

CHAPTER XIII. – HERESIES OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES. –

ARTICLE I. – ISAAC PERIERES, MARK ANTHONY DE DOMINIS, WILLIAM POSTELLUS, AND BENEDICT SPINOSA. – 1. -Isaac Perieres, chief of the Pre-Adamites; abjures his heresy. 2.-Mark Anthony de Dominis; his errors and death. 3. -William Postellus; his errors and conversion. 4.-Benedict Spinosa, author of a new sort of Atheism. 5.-Plan of his impious system; his unhappy death

ARTICLE II. – THE ERRORS OF MICHAEL BAIUS. – 6.-Michael Baius disseminates his unsound doctrine, and is opposed. 7.St. Pius V. condemns seventy-nine Propositions of Baius, and he abjures them. 8. -Retractation written by Baius, and confirmed by Pope Urban VIII.

ARTICLE III. – THE ERRORS OF CORNELIUS JANSENIUS. – 9. -Cornelius, Bishop of Ghent, and Cornelius, Bishop of Ipres; his studies and degrees. 10.-Notice of the condemned work of Jansenius. 11.-Urban VIII. condemns the book of Jansenius in the Bull “In eminenti;” the Bishops of France present the five propositions to Innocent X. 12. -Innocent condemns them in the Bull ” Cum occasione;” notice of the Propositions. 13. -Opposition of the Jansenists; but Alexander VIII. declares that the five propositions are extracted from the book, and condemned in the sense of Jansenius; two propositions of Arnauld condemned. 14.-Form of subscription commanded by the Pope to be made. 15.-The religious silence. 16.-The Case of Conscience condemned by Clement XI. in the Bull Vineam Domini. 17.-The opinion, that the Pontificate of St. Paul was equal to that of St. Peter, condemned

ARTICLE IV. – 18,-Quesnel is dismissed from the Congregation of the Oratory. 19. -He publishes several unsound works in Brussels. 20.-Is imprisoned, escapes to Amsterdam, and dies excommunicated. 21. -The Book he wrote. 22.-The Bull “Unigenitus,” condemning the Book. 23. -The Bull is accepted by the King, the Clergy, and the Sorbonne; the followers of Quesnel appeal to a future Council. 24.-Several Bishops also, and Cardinal de Noailles, appeal to a future Council likewise, but the Council of Embrun declares that the appeal should not be entertained. 25.-The Consultation of the Advocates rejected by the assembly of the Bishops; Cardinal de Noailles retracts, and accepts the Bull; the Bull is declared dogmatical by the Sorbonne and the Bishops. 26.-Three principles of the system of Quesnel.

ARTICLE V. -THE ERRORS OF MICHAEL MOLINOS. – 29.-The unsound Book of Molinos called the “Spiritual Guide.” 30.-His impious Doctrine, and the consequences deduced from it. 31. -His affected sanctity; he is found out and imprisoned, with two of his disciples. 32.-He is condemned himself, as well as his Works; he publicly abjures his errors, and dies penitent. 33. Condemnation of the Book entitled “The Maxims of the Saints”

SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. – HERESIES OF THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES. – 1. -Introductory matter. 2.-Rationalists. 3-Hernlmtters, or Moravians. 4-.Swedenborgians, or New Jerusalemites. 5 -Methodism; Wesley. 6, 7.Doctrines and practices of the Methodists. 8. -Johanna Southcott. 9.-Mormonism. 10.-German Catholics

 

REFUTATION OF HERESIES. –

REFUTATION I. – THE HERESY OF SABELLIUS, WHO DENIED THE DISTINCTION OF PERSONS IN THE TRINITY

  1. OBJECTIONS ANSWERED.

 

REFUTATION II. – THE HERESY OF ARIUS, WHO DENIED THE DIVINITY OF THE WORD. – THE DIVINITY OF THE WORD PROVED FROM THE SCRIPTURES

II- THE DIVINITY OF THE WORD PROVED BY THE AUTHORITY OF HOLY FATHERS AND COUNCILS

III. OBJECTIONS ANSWERED

 

REFUTATION III. – OF THE HERESY OF MACEDONIUS, WHO DENIED THE DIVINITY OF THE HOLY GHOST. THE DIVINITY OF THE HOLY GHOST PROVED FROM SCRIPTURES, FROM THE TRADITIONS OF THE FATHERS, AND FROM GENERAL COUNCILS.

II-ANSWER TO OBJECTIONS

 

REFUTATION IV. THE HERESY OF THE GREEKS, WHO ASSERT THAT THE HOLY GHOST PROCEEDS FROM THE FATHER ALONE, AND NOT FROM THE FATHER AND THE SON.

I – IT IS PROVED THAT THE HOLY GHOST PROCEEDS FROM THE FATHER AND THE SON

II. OBJECTIONS ANSWERED

 

REFUTATION V. – REFUTATION OF THE HERESY OF PELAGIUS

I. OF THE NECESSITY OF GRACE.

II. OF THE GRATUITY OF GRACE

III. – THE NECESSITY AND THE GRATUITY OF GRACE IS PROVED BY TRADITION; CONFIRMED BY THE DECREES OF COUNCILS AND POPES.

IV-OBJECTIONS ANSWERED.

 

REFUTATION VI. – OF THE SEMIPELAGIAN HERESY.

THE COMMENCEMENT OF FAITH AND EVERY GOOD DESIRE IS NOT FROM OURSELVES, BUT FROM GOD.

OBJECTIONS ANSWERED

 

REFUTATION VII. – REFUTATION OF THE HERESY OF NESTORIUS, WHO TAUGHT THAT IN CHRIST THERE ARE TWO PERSONS.

IN JESUS CHRIST THERE IS BUT THE ONE PERSON OF THE WORD ALONE, WHICH TERMINATES THE TWO NATURES, DIVINE AND HUMAN, WHICH BOTH SUBSIST IN THE SAME PERSON OF THE WORD, AND, THEREFORE, THIS ONE PERSON IS, AT THE SAME TIME, TRUE GOD AND TRUE MAN

OBJECTIONS ANSWERED

 

RUFUTATION VIII – MARY IS THE REAL AND TRUE MOTHER OF GOD.

THE OBJECTIONS OF THE NESTORIANS ANSWERED.

 

REFUTATION VIII. REFUTATION OF THE HERESY OF EUTYCHES, WHO ASSERTED THAT THERE WAS ONLY ONE NATURE IN CHRIST. IN CHRIST THERE ARE TWO NATURES THE DIVINE AND THE HUMAN NATURE DISTINCT, UNMIXED, UNCONFUSED, AND ENTIRE, SUBSISTING INSEPARABLY IN THE ONE HYPOSTASIS, OR PERSON OF THE WORD..

OBJECTIONS ANSWERED

 

REFUTATION IX. – OF THE MONOTHELITE HERESY, THAT THERE IS BUT ONE NATURE AND ONE OPERATION ONLY IN CHRIST.

IT IS PROVED THAT THERE ARE TWO DISTINCT WILLS IN CHRIST, DIVINE AND HUMAN, ACCORDING TO THE TWO NATURES, AND TWO OPERATIONS, ACCORDING TO THE TWO WILLS.

OBJECTIONS ANSWERED.

 

REFUTATION X. – THE HERESY OF BERENGARIUS, AND THE PRETENDED REFORMERS, CONCERNING THE MOST HOLY SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST

I. OF THE REAL PRESENCE OF THE BODY AND BLOOD OF JESUS CHRIST IN THE EUCHARIST

OBJECTIONS AGAINST THE REAL PRESENCE ANSWERED

II. OF TRANSUBSTANTIATION, THAT IS, THE CONVERSION OF THE SUBSTANCE OF THE BREAD AND OF THE WINE INTO THE SUBSTANCE OF THE BODY AND BLOOD OF JESUS CHRIST

OBJECTIONS AGAINST TRANSUBSTANTIATION ANSWERED.

III. OF THE MANNER IN WHICH JESUS CHRIST IS IN THE EUCHARIST. THE PHILOSOPHICAL OBJECTIONS OF THE SACRAMENTARIANS ANSWERED

https://sensusfidelium.us/apologetics/history-of-heresies-their-refutation-st-alphonsus/the-matter-and-form-of-the-sacrament-of-the-eucharist/IV. THE MATTER AND FORM OF THE SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST

 

REFUTATION XI. ERRORS OF LUTHER AND CALVIN. SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL POINTS. – l.-Free will exists. 2.-The Divine Law is not impossible. 3.-Works are necessary. 4.-Faith alone does not justify us. 5.-Of the uncertainty of Justification, Perseverance, and eternal Salvation. 6. -God is not the Author of Sin. 7.-God predestines no one to hell. 8.-Infallibility of General Councils

I- OF FREE WILL

II. THAT IT IS NOT IMPOSSIBLE TO OBSERVE THE DIVINE LAW.

III. THAT GOOD WORKS ARE NECESSARY FOR SALVATION, AND THAT FAITH ALONE IS NOT SUFFICIENT.

IV. THE SINNER IS NOT JUSTIFIED BY FAITH ALONE

V. FAITH ALONE CANNOT RENDER US SECURE OF JUSTICE, OR PERSEVERANCE, OR ETERNAL LIFE

VI. GOD CANNOT BE THE AUTHOR OF SIN.

VII. GOD NEVER PREDESTINED ANY ONE TO ETERNAL DAMNATION WITHOUT REGARD TO HIS SINS

VIII. THE AUTHORITY OF GENERAL COUNCILS.

 

REFUTATION XII. – THE ERRORS OF MICHAEL BAIUS

 

REFUTATION XIII. – THE ERRORS OF CORNELIUS JANSENIUS.

 

REFUTATION XIV. THE HERESY OF MICHAEL MOLINOS.

 

REFUTATION XIV. BERRUYER’S ERRORS

SUMMARY OF THESE ERRORS.

  1. BERRUYER SAYS THAT JESUS CHRIST WAS MADE IN TIME, BY AN OPERATION AD EXTRA, THE NATURAL SON OF GOD, ONE SUBSISTING IN THREE PERSONS, WHO UNITED THE HUMANITY OF CHRIST WITH A DIVINE PERSON.
  2. BERRUYER SAYS THAT JESUS CHRIST, DURING THE THREE DAYS HE WAS IN THE SEPULCHRE, CEASED TO BE A LIVING MAN, AND, CONSEQUENTLY, WAS NO LONGER THE SON OF GOD. AND WHEN GOD AGAIN RAISED HIM FROM THE DEAD, HE ONCE MORE GENERATED HIM, AND AGAIN MADE HIM THE SON OF GOD.
  3. BERRUYER SAYS THAT IT WAS THE HUMANITY ALONE OF CHRIST THAT OBEYED, PRAYED, AND SUFFERED, AND THAT HIS OBLATIONS, PRAYERS, AND MEDITATIONS, WERE NOT OPERATIONS PROCEEDING FROM THE WORD, AS A PHYSICAL AND EFFICIENT PRINCIPLE, BUT THAT, IN THIS SENSE, THEY WERE ACTIONS MERELY OF HIS HUMANITY
  4. THE MIRACLES WROUGHT BY JESUS CHRIST WERE NOT PERFORMED BY HIS OWN POWERS, BUT OBTAINED FROM HIS FATHER, BY HIS PRAYERS
  5. THE HOLY GHOST WAS NOT SENT TO THE APOSTLES BY JESUS CHRIST, BUT BY THE FATHER ALONE, AT THE PRAYER OF CHRIST
  6. OTHER ERRORS OF BERRUYER ON DIFFERENT SUBJECTS.

 

EXHORTATION TO CATHOLICS